The disease is transmitted by the bites of mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles, of which the Anopheles gambiae complex (the most efficient) is responsible for the transmission of disease in Africa. Fever is the main symptom of malaria. The most severe manifestations are cerebral malaria (mainly in children and persons without previous immunity), anemia (mainly in children and pregnant women), and kidney and other organ dysfunction (e. g.
, respiratory distress syndrome). Persons repeatedly exposed to the disease acquire a considerable degree of clinical immunity, which is unstable and disappears after a year away from the endemic-disease environment. Immunity reappears after malarial bouts if the person returns to an endemic-disease zone. Most likely to die of malaria are persons without previous immunity, primarily children or persons from parts of the same country (e.
g. , high altitudes) where transmission is absent, or persons from more industrialized countries where the disease does not exist. Why Is Malaria Reemerging?Do you think that when that thought they got everyone that had Malaria it was over? Well I think you knoe that’s no where this titie nor paragraph. In the last decade, the prevalence of malaria has been escalating at an alarming rate, especially in Africa. An estimated 300 to 500 million cases each year cause 1. 5 to 2.
7 million deaths, more than 90% in children under 5 years of age in Africa. Malaria has been estimated to cause 2. 3% of global disease and 9% of disease in Africa; it ranks third among major infectious disease threats in Africa after pneumococcal acute respiratory infections (3. 5%) and tuberculosis (TB) (2.
8%). Cases in Africa account for approximately 90% of malaria cases in the world. Between 1994 and 1996, malaria epidemics in 14 countries of sub-Saharan Africa caused an unacceptably high number of deaths, many in areas previously free of the disease. Adolescents and young adults are now dying of severe forms of the disease. Air travel has brought the threat of the disease to the doorsteps of industrialized countries, with an increasing incidence of imported cases and deaths from malaria by visitors to endemic-disease regions.
A number of factors appear to be contributing to the resurgence of malaria: 1) rapid spread of resistance of malaria parasites to chloroquine and the other quinolines; 2) frequent armed conflicts and civil unrest in many countries, forcing large populations to settle under difficult conditions, sometimes in areas of high malaria transmission; 3) migration (for reasons of agriculture, commerce, and trade) of nonimmune populations from nonmalarious and usually high to low parts of the same country where transmission is high; 4) changing rainfall patterns as well as water development projects such as dams and irrigation schemes, which create new mosquito breeding sites; 5) adverse socioeconomic conditions leading to a much reduced health budget and gross inadequacy of funds for drugs; 6) high birth rates leading to a rapid increase in the susceptible population under 5 years of age; 7)changes in the behavior of the vectors, particularly in biting habits, from indoor to outdoor biters. How to control yourselfThe present strategy for malaria control, adopted by the Ministerial Conference on Malaria in Amsterdam in 1992, is to prevent death, reduce illness, and decrease social and economic loss due to the disease . Its practical implementation requires two main tools: first, drugs for early treatment of the disease, management of severe and complicated cases, and prophylactic use on the most vulnerable population (particularly pregnant women); second, insecticide-treated nets for protection against mosquito bites. Each tool has its own problems in regard to field implementation. April 1Nigeria: U.
s. Supports Malaria Programme With $21m The United States Government has increased its support to Nigeria’s Malaria Pro-gramme from $8million for the period between 1999 and 2003 to $21 million for the period between 2004 and 2008. This Day Nigeria: Council Boss Promises Free Malaria Treatment Chairman, Amuwo-Odofin Local government of Lagos State, Prince Rasheed Adesina Otolorin has pledged the continuity of free medical services in health delivery services for malaria treatment within the area. This Day March 29Kenya: Malaria Still Kenya’s Biggest Killer Disease Malaria still tops the list of diseases that affect most Kenyans, a new report says. Nation Gambia: Malaria Death Toll Worrisome The death toll for malaria, as the major killer disease in the sub-Saharan Africa is worrisome, as statistics show increasing rate of the pandemic, and The Gambia without exemption, registered an annual death rate of one thousand for children under the age of five. Independent (Banjul) Gambia: ‘Let’s Fight Malaria’ – SoS Faal The Secretary of State for Youths and Sports, Samba Faal has urged Gambian youths to rise up and get rid of the menace caused by malaria, the world?s main killer disease.
Independent (Banjul) South Africa opinion: Drugs Sector Needs Dose of Courage INDIA’s lower house, the Lok Sabha, has just passed patent legislation that will provide protection for innovators that, to date, has been largely lacking. The new rules – which will grant product patents for medicines and other novel technologies – have been heavily criticised by activist organisations such as Medicins Sans Frontieres and Oxfam, which fear it will deny poor people cheap drugs. Business Day March 28Nigeria: Intels, Joygirl, SFA, Build Hospital for Aids, Malaria Intels Nigeria Limited, a comprehensive logistic support outfit in Rivers State has partnered with internationally acclaimed singer and President of Support For Africa (SFA) NGO, Patti Boulaye to build a cottage hospital in Port Harcourt, the Rivers State capital. This Day March 25West Africa: Stakeholders Review Anti-Malaria Nets’ Success in Abuja Bolstered by the results of household surveys conducted in Nigeria, Ghana, Senegal and Zambia, which indicated a significant rise in the use of Insecticide Treated Bednets (ITNs) in the prevention of malaria, stakeholders have scheduled a dissemination meeting for next week in Abuja. This Day March 24Namibia: Country Co-ordination Mechanism Prepares HIV, TB and Malaria Funding Requests NAMIBIA has started preparations to apply for grants under the fifth round of funding by the Global Fund to fight HIV-AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria.
Namibian March 23Liberia: African Malaria Comes to Town First, the bad news: urban malaria in Africa is becoming a major health problem and looks set to get worse. Observer Uganda: US$33m to Import New Malaria Drug US$33m (sh56. 7b) has been set aside by the health ministry for the importation of Coartem in August, a new drug that will replace Chloroquine, Dr John Bosco Rwakimari, the co-coordinator of the Malaria Control Programme, has said. New Vision March 22Uganda: Muhwezi Advises On Malaria THE Government has urged the private sector to fight malaria through vector control, writes James Odomel and Herbert Sempogo. New Vision Sierra Leone: NaCSA Holds Sensitization Workshop The National Commission for Social Action (NaCSA) has held an HIV/AIDS and malaria sensitization workshop in the Kroobay Community Centre in central Freetown.
Standard Times March 21Nigeria: New Malaria Drug for Pregnant Women Debuts Pregnant women in Nigeria and West African sub-region would now heave a sign of relief as a new malaria drug already endorsed by Federal Government debuts in market. This Day Liberia opinion: Combating Malaria in the Next Liberian Republic Dr. Syrulwa Somah thinks that Liberia needs to reconsider its reliance on chloroquine as malaria treatment by seeking other viable treatment options for malaria, including ATD and traditional Liberian herbs. Observer Nigeria: Yousou Ndour Stages African Concert to Fight Malaria Tens of thousands of fans turned up for the first of two Africa Live concerts staged in the Senegalese capital, Dakar, last weekend to raise awareness in the fight against malaria. Senegalese music icon, Yousou Ndour, was the brain behind the project which featured other African artistes. Daily Champion March 18Angola: Flooding Leaves At Least 10,000 Homeless Flooding in Angola’s northern Kwanza Norte province has left at least 10,000 people without shelter and created conditions ripe for malaria and diarrhoeal diseases.
IRIN PanAfrica: ‘Malaria Deadlier Than Aids’ A call has been made to African leaders, especially Nigeria, to pay more attention to the eradication of malaria, which research has shown is deadlier than HIV/AIDS and other seemingly deadlier diseases. This Day March 16Senegal: Anti-Malaria ACTs Expected for Rainy Season Once Funds Approved Senegal plans to switch to more expensive but more effective artemisinin-based anti-malaria drugs before the rainy season kicks off this year, with the help of funding from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, a senior health official said on Wednesday. IRIN Angola: Over 74. 000 People Died of Malaria From 2001-2004 At least 74. 901 people died of malaria in Angola between 2001 and 2004, said today in Luanda, Milton Saraiva, member of the Malaria Controlling Technical Team.
ANGOP Botswana: Media Told to Increase Coverage On Malaria, TB The media has been advised not to focus only on HIV/AIDS but to increase their coverage of malaria and tuberculosis. Mmegi March 15Senegal: Wanted! 100 Million Mosquito Nets to Stop Malaria When Senegalese superstar Youssou N’Dour rolled into this dusty village and bellowed “How many people want a bed net?”, hundreds of hands shot up into the air. IRIN PanAfrica press release: Africa Action Co-Sponsors Embassy Protests urging G-7 Action on Debt & Aids Joins other Groups in Global Day of Action’ Calling for Debt Cancellation and Money for Global Fund to fight AIDSAfrica Action March 14Southern Africa: Health Crisis Threaten’s Zimbabwe’s Neighbours The collapse of medical services coupled with political and economic instability means Zimbabwe is starting to export its health problems. And this is a data chart that shows information about malaria and how it is effecting or help killing there loved ones that are left in Africa.
Bibliography/ yahoo/how malaria started. comEmerging infections diseases volume 4 number 3. Malaria: A Reemerging Disease in Africa. Thomas C.
Nchinda world health Organization Geneva, SwitzerlWorld Health OrganizationDivision of Control of Tropical Diseases