Literature Essay

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The Spanish Period (1565- 1898) Historical Background It is an accepted belief that the Spanish colonization of the Philippinesstarted in 1565 during the time of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi the first Spanish governor-general in the Philippines. Literature started to flourish during his time. This spurt continued unabated until the Cavite Revolt in 1872. The Spaniards colonized the Philippines for more than three centuries. During these times, many changes occurred in the lives of Filipinos. They embraced the Catholic religion, changed their names, and were baptized. Their lifestyles changed too.
They built houses mad of stones and bricks, used beautiful furniture like the piano and used kitchen utensils. Carriages, trains and boats were used as means of travel. They held fiestas to honor the saints, the pope and the governors. They had cockfights, horse races and the theater as means of recreation. This gave rise to the formation of the different classes of society like the rich and the landlords. Some Filipinos finished courses like medicine, law, agriculture and teaching. Many Filipinos finished their schooling already had been established. Notable Dates and Events 610 -Tomas Pinpin, ladino or bilingual, publishes his Spanish grammar for the use of the Tagalogs. -Tomas Pinpin and Blancas de san Jose jointly authored Librong Pagaarala ng mga Tagalog sa Uikang Castilla -Pinpins attempt at verse, and incidentally his religious proclivities, could be best seen in “Come Con Dios”. COME CON DIOS O ama con dios O great God my father O gran dios me padre tolongan mo acogrant aid to me quered ayudarme; amponin mo acogrant me favor sedme favorable nang mayari itoto be able to complete this task porque este se acabe at icao ang purihinand give praise to thee.
Y a ves es alaban. April 14, 1617- The Spanish fleet headed by Juan Ronquillo prevented the British attempt to invade Manila in the battle of Playa-Homda. 1627-a pioneering Tagalog versifier, Pedro Suarez Osorio of Ermita Manila. Little is known of him, either as a priest or a writer. One of his attempts at poetry was fortunately preserved by father Alonso de Santa Ana in his book Explicacion de la Doctrina Lengua Tagala. SALAMAT NG UALANG HOYANG Salamat ng ualang hoyang Thanks be without end Sa iyo Dios con maalamTo you god the All-knowing Nitong iyong awang mahalFor your precious grace
Sa aming catagalogangiven us, your Tagalog brethren “Icao paraluman naminYou are our guide Ang sucat nga naming sundinWhom we shall follow strictly Hanggang di cami dumatingTill we reach Sa lalawigan mahimbing. ”The peaceful haven. October 3, 1646 -For the second time, the Spanish fleet defeated the British warship in Manila Bay. This event is commemorated in a yearly feast called “La Naval de Manila”. 1704-Padre Gaspar Aquilino de Belen, a native of Rosario Batanggas was the first Filipino who composed and sang the pasion in tagalong and permitted by the church by Father Antonio del Pueblo to be imprint. 750-Pasion becoming a best seller for many years and it was reissued the fifth time. October 5, 1762 -The British fleet defeated the Spanish warship allowing the British rule the country for two years. March 17, 1764 -The British surrendered the country to Spain after losing a battle during the seven-year war between them. October 31, 1829 -Francisco Dagohoy, a cabeza de barangay of Bohol and the leader of the longest uprising (8 years), surrendered to the Spaniards. September 6, 1834 -Manila was opened to international trade leading to a remarkable transformation of its economy. 861-Birth of Jose Rizal, the national hero of the Philippines. 1872-Cavite Mutiny; martyrdom of the three priests: Gomez, Burgos,Zamora. 1887-Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me Not) is published. It exposes Spain’s abuse of the Philippines as well as its people. 1888-El Filibusterismo (Subversion) is published. It is dedicated to the memory of Father Burgos, Gomez, and Zamora. February 15, 1889 -The establishment of La Solidaridad, the newspaper founded by Graciano Lopez Jaena to voice out the Filipinos cry for reforms. September 18, 1891 -Jose Rizal finished his novel El Filibusterismo following the first, Noli Me Tangere.
Both portrayed the struggling life of the Filipinos under the Spanish rule. July 3, 1892. Jose Rizal established La Liga Filipina, a civic movement aimed at reuniting Filipinos to act together for reforms and autonomy from the unjust administration of the Spaniards. July 7, 1892. Jose Rizal was captured and exiled to Dapitan in Mindanao. There he served as a doctor, a scientist and a teacher to the locals. July 7, 1892. At the same day of Rizal’s capture, Andres Bonifacio, Teodoro Plata and Valentin Diaz established the “Katipunan”, a revolutionary movement aimed to fight for freedom against Spain. 893-Zarzuela is introduced. August 19, 1896. The Spaniards learned the Katipunan movement that resulted to a massive capture of many Filipinos. 1896-The Cry of Pugadlawin. The Philippines Revolution breaks out. August 23, 1896. Bonifacio and his fellow Katipuneros tore their cedulas or residence certificates while shouting “Long live the Philippines”, during their preparation for battle. This was marked as the historic Cry of Balintawak. August 25, 1896. The Katipuneros headed by Bonifacio had their first encounter with the Spanish civil guards and infantrymen.
Due to strong forces and large presence of the Filipino troops, both camps of the Spaniards retreated. But in the end, Filipinos lost the battle when the latter came back with large number of fighters and stronger ammunition. Setember 12, 1896. A group of revolutionaries from Cavite were executed. They are now known as teh “Trece Martires de Cavite” or the thirteen martyrs of Cavite. December 30, 1896. Jose Rizal was executed by firing squad in Bagumbayan (now called Rizal Park) after being held captive at fort Santiago in Intramuros, Manila. March 22, 1897.
The Katipuneros elected a new set of officers to replace the Katipunan. This was held in Tejeros, San Francisco de Malabon and was called the Tejeros Convention. Bonifacio diisolved the convention after Daniel Tirona, an associate of Emilio Aguinaldo, questioned his professional credibility as the director of the interior without a Lawyer’s diploma. Aguinaldo’s group won and considered Bonifacio and his men enemies of the revolution. May 10, 1897. Andres Bonifacio and his brother Procopio were excuted in Mt. Tala, Cavite after an unjust trial headed by General.
Mariano Noriel, an associate of Emilio Aguinaldo. April 23, 1897. A new Spanish Governor named Fernando Primo de Rivera arrived in Manila for the purpose of minimizing the thriving rebellion of the Filipinos. He issued a decree to grant pardon to those who would surrender to the Spanish government. December 15, 1897. Primo de Rivera and Pedro Paterno signed the Truce of Biak-na-Bato allowing a temporary ceasefire between the Spanish and the Filipinos. December 27, 1897. Aguinaldo and his associates voluntarily moved to Hongkong for the amount of P800,000. January 20, 1898.
Periodic battles between the Filipinos and the Spaniards erupted due to mutual suspicion. General Francisco Makabulos of Tarlac established a provisional goverment. The arrest and imprisonment of suspected rebels continued and despite the Truce, the revolution persisted. UNITED STATES COLONIAL RULE Period of Appreniticeship (1910-1930) Period of Emergence (1920-1945) February 14, 1898 -The Spaniards bombed the American fleet “Maine” in Havana, Cuba killing 246 people. 1898 – (April) The American Congress declares a state of war between the U. S and Spain.
April 25, 1898. The United States declared war against Spain ordering Commodore George Dewy to attack the Spanish fleet in the Philippines. May 1, 1898 -Manila Bay turned into a massive battle field between United States and Spain. The Americans defeated the Spanish fleet led by Admiral Patricio Montojo. June 12, 1898 -General Emilio Aguinaldo, who had returned from Hongkong, proclaimed Philippine independence at his mansion in Kawit, Cavite. August 13, 1898 -A mock battle between the Spanish and the Americans occured forbidding the participation of Filipino soldiers.
Later, Manila was surrendered by Spain to the United States. December 10, 1898. Without the knowledge of the Filipinos, Spain surrendered the Philippines (along with Puerto Rico and Guam) to the United States in exchange of $20 million under the Treaty of Paris. 1898 – (January 21) First Philippine Republic by Emilio Aguinaldo. 1898-1899 – Jose Palma writes “Filipinas”, poem which became the text of the Philippine national anthem. January 23, 1899 -General Emilio Aguinaldo was sworn into office as the president of the Philippine Republic and at the same time promulgated The Malolos Constitution. 899-Antonio Luna publishes La Independencia, a Spanish revolutionary literature. June 5, 1899 -General Antonio Luna was killed by soldiers from the Kawit Company in Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija. 1899 -The Filipino American War breaks out. 1900 – President William Mckinley issues a directive to the Philippine Commission making English the official medium of instruction in the public schools. December 2, 1900 -The young general, Gregorio del Pilar died while fighting against the Americans in the Battle of Pasong Tirad (Tirad Pass). March 23, 1901 -Emilio Aguinaldo was captured by the Americans headed by Col.
Frederick Funston with the help of some Filipinos in Palanan, Isabela. A. SPANISH INFLUENCES ON PHILIPPINE LITERATURE Due to the long period of colonization of the Philippines by the Spaniards, they have exerted a strong influence on our literature. 1. The first Filipino alphabet called ALIBATA was replaced by the Roman Alphabet. 2. Literature was used as tool for religious conquest. 3. The teaching of the Christian Doctrine became the basis of religious practices. 4. The Spanish language which became the literary language during this time lent many of its words to our language. 5.
European legends and traditions brought here became assimilated in our songs, corridos, and moro-moros. 6. Ancient literature was collected and translated to Tagalog and other dialects. 7. Many grammar books were printed in Filipino, like Tagalog, Ilocano and Visayan 8. Our periodicals during these times gained a religious tone. 9. The friars produced a variety of religious manuals, grammar books, and dictionaries in the vernacular intended for friar missions 10. Spanish missionaries utilized the stage to propagate the Christian religion 11. Literature was predominantly religious and moral in character and tone 2. Nationalistic period (1864-1896) saw the growth of reformist and revolutionary literatures. Reform movement used lit as mans to protest issues to expose and to condemn Spanish abuses and provoke the people into action. New themes of literature particularly the tradition of protest were introduced. 13. The rich young filipinos studied liberal arts in europe. They introduced the reformist literature. The oppressed lower classes agitated for reforms. There was a shift in the use of language from Spanish to Tagalog. 14.
Realism emerged in Philippine writing through Noli me Tangere and El Filibusterismo. 15. Lyric, Narrative, Corrido, Pasyon, Karagatan, Comedia, Moro-moro, Cenakulo, Zarzuela, Carilli, Biographies, Saints and doctrines were some of the famous literary types during the period. B. THE FIRST BOOKS 1. ANG DOCTRINA CRISTIANA (THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE). -This was the first book printed in the Philippines in 1593 in xylography. It was written by Fr. Juan de Placencia and Fr. Domingo Nieva, in Tagalog and Spanish. It contained the Pater Noster (Out Father), Ave Maria (Hail
Mary), Regina Coeli (Hail Holy Queen), the Ten Commandments of God, the Commandments of the Catholic Church, the Seven Mortal Sins, How to Confess, and the Catechism. Three old original copies of this book can still be found at the Vatican, at the Madrid Museum and at the US Congress. It contains only 87 pages but costs $5,000. 00. 2. Nuestra Senora del Rosario. -The second book printed in the Philippines was written by Fr. Blancas de San Jose in 1602, and printed at the UST Printing Press with the help of Juan de Vera, a Chinese mestizo.
It contains the biographies of saints, novenas, and questions and answers on religion. 3. Libro de los Cuatro Postprimeras de Hombre -Postprimeras de Hombre (in Spanish and Tagalog). This is the first book printed in typography. 4. Ang Barlaan at Josephat. -This is a Biblical story printed in the Philippines and translated to Tagalog from Greek by Fr. Antonio de Borja. It is believed to be the first Tagalog novel published in the Philippines even if it is only a translation. The printed translation has only 556 pages. The Ilocano translation in poetry was done by Fr. Agustin Mejia.
The Greek Legend of Josaphat and Barlaan, who are believed to have survived around the 3rd-4th century in India, has been ascribed to John Damascene who wrote it around 750 B. C. (Although some sources cite that this is actually originally written by the Georgian monk, Euthymios in the 11th century). The story traces its origin to a Manichaean tract produced in Central Asia. In the Preparer’s Notes, it has been established that this work has startling similarities with the Tale of Buddha, thus Josaphat and Baraan is referred to as the Christianized version of Buddha’s life, with Josaphat reaching enlightenment through he love of Jesus Christ. Woodward, G. R. & H. Mattingly, 1914) “Barlaan at Josaphat,” printed in the Philippines by Fr. Antonio de Borja, S. J. in 1708 and 1712–although a translation–is considered by researchers as the first novel in Tagalog. (J. Villa Panganiban, et al. , 1987) 5. The Passion. This is the book about the life and sufferings of Jesus Christ. It is read only during Lent. There were 4 versions of this in Tagalog and each version is according to the name of the writer. These are the: 1. Pilapil version (by Mariano Pilapil of Bulacan, 1814) 2. De Belen version (by Gaspar Aquino de Belen of Bat. 1704) 3.
De la Merced (by Aniceto de la Merced of Norzagaray, Bulacan in 1856) 4. De Guia version (by Luis de Guia in 1750). Critics are not agreed whether it is the Pilapil or the de la Merced version which is the most popular. Among the most popular forms of literature during the Spanish era was the rendition of the passion, death and resurrection of Jesus known as the Pasyon ni Kristo. The first Tagalog Pasyon or poetic rendition of the Paschal Mystery appeared in 1704. So popular was it that it reached its fifth edition in 1760. Its author, Gaspar Aquino de Belen, was an Indio layman who worked in the Jesuit press in Manila.
Though he used a 17th century Spanish Pasyon as his model, de Belen’s work is grounded in local traditions. Anonymous versions of the Pasyon began appearing in 1804. Spanish friars decried the presence of a few heresies in the text, as well as its “profane” use in Indio festivals and gatherings. This shows that by the end of the 18th century, the Pasyon had become a social epic of the Tagalogs and probably of other lowland Christians as well. In the 19th century, a native priest named Mariano Pilapil made corrections to various illicit versions and produced the most popular version of the text called Pasyon Pilapil or Pasyon Henesis.
It was used as a catechetical tool that helped the Filipino Church live its Catholic faith at a time when Bibles were not widely available. There is a direction in which the Pasyon has strongly influenced popular consciousness. It has been persuasively argued that the Pasyon affirms prevailing social structures. After all, the Pasyon was usually performed in the churchyard with the friar’s blessing and the financial support of the gentry. This is particularly true of the portions titled aral or lessons, which preach the fulfillment of Christian duties and the acceptance of things as they are.
But the aral portions have little or nothing to do with the inexorable flow of the story. In fact, they stand out as obvious commentaries by friar censors anxious to draw to their advantage the popularity of the Pasyon. The Pasyon may be a dying ritual today, but its imprint in popular consciousness remains. Given the kind of culture that has developed and persisted over the last few centuries, it is hardly surprising that masses of people from all walks of life instinctively offer damay for new Pasyon figures which emerge from time to time. 6. Urbana at Felisa. -A book by Modesto de Castro, the so called Father of Classic Prose in Tagalog.
These are letters between two sisters Urbana at Felisa and have influenced greatly the behavior of people in society because the letters dealt with good behavior. -The prose works of the period consisted mostly of “Didactic pieces and translation of religious writing in foreign languages”, such as novenas and biographies of saints. -The most important piece of didactic literature of this period is “Urbana at Feliza”, written by Fr. Modesto de Castro. -Published in 1855, it took the form of the epistolary novel with the full title of “Pagsusulatan nang dalauang binibini na si Urbana at si Feliza na nagtuturo ng mabuting caugalian”. It is an exchange of letters between two sisters: Urbana, who is a student in colegio in Manila and Feliza, who lives in province with their parents. -Urbana’s letters are full of advice to her sister in proper behavior at home, in church, at parties, while receiving a suitor in her parlor, and on other occasion, One letter includes the priest’s counsel on how choose a life partner. -The letters contain occasional pointers, too, for Honesto, a younger brother, and explanation of one’s duties to God, to his family and to his community. 7. Ang Mga Dalit kay Maria (Psalms for Mary).
A collection of songs praising the Virgin Mary. Fr. Mariano Sevilla, a Filipino priest, wrote this in 1865 and it was popular especially during the Maytime “Flores de Mayo” festival. Exhibits: 1. Doctrina Christiana “This facsimile of the Doctrina Christiana printed at Manila in 1593 was printed by Edward Stern & Company, Inc. , Philadelphia, in an edition of twenty-five hundred copies, and published by the Library of Congress, February 1947. The type used on the title page and for headings is forum, and that in the text Italian Old Style. . 2.
Ang Barlaan at Josephat King Abenir (Abenner or Avenier) reigns over  a vast Indian Kingdom outstretched beyond the  lands of Egypt. He lives in luxury and worldly honors, and is known for his bravery and victory in battles. Yet despite being mighty in wealth and power, his happiness is marred, for he has no heir to inherit his throne, kingdom, and glory. Meanwhile, he learns that noblemen and senators have abandoned their luxurious lives and  started laying their lives for Christ’s sake. Those who embrace the monastic life are growing in number.
Hence, the king starts passing on decrees forcing Christians to renounce their religions, and later mastered various methods of torture to persecute them. Many of the followers who are weak in spirit are unable to endure the torture and yield to the king. The others who rebuke him suffer and become martyrs. The threatened few seek refuge in the deserts and mountains. The king rules for many years and in this terrible state of error, the queen bears a child. The comely babe, they name Josaphat (Ioasaph). The king is filled with joy, and orders his men to gather his people to celebrate his son’s birthday.
Although in shroud of fear, the people come, bringing offerings according to what each man has in store. King Abenir’s joy is however short-lived when he learns from the oracles of kings that his son will embrace the Christian faith: “From that which I learn from the courses of the stars, O king, the advancement of the child, now born unto thee, will not be in thy kingdom, but in another, a better and a greater one beyond compare. Methinketh also that he will embrace the Christian religion, which thou persecutest, and I trow that he will not be disappointed of his aim and hope.   thus spoke the astrologer (Part III, Online Medieval Library). King Abenir’s wrath and disillusionment is such as to have his men build a castle for his only son in a secluded city. There Josaphat (Ioasaph) lives, devoid of any contact from the outside world, except for instructors, servants, and guards–whom the king thinks fit to serve him. The young prince grows to manhood. Meanwhile, in the wilderness of Senaar, there lives a hermit saint. This elder’s name is Barlaan (Barlaam). Upon witnessing an apparition, Barlaan leaves for the young prince Josaphat’s palace.
In disguise as a merchant, he starts imparting the Christian teachings and works to Josaphat until the latter accepts the faith and finally gets baptized. When King Abenir discovers his son’s baptism, he is outraged. But after six years of his son’s persistent urging and encouragement, the king himself gets baptized. Not long after, the king dies, and Josaphat honors his body by burying him in a sepulchre where the devoted men lay and clothing him in a robe of penitence. After erecting and establishing a church, Josaphat leaves his father’s land and entrusts  the kingdom to a faithful servant and follower, Barachias.
He embarks in a journey in search of true happiness and a life unobstructed by worldly confusions. Enduring sundry misfortunes and hardships, Josaphat finally finds his friend, Barlaan. The rest of their lives they devote in living godly lives and venerating the Lord. They took to an ascetic lifestyle until Barlaan’s death. Two years later, Josaphat followed. The news of their death reaches King Bacharias, upon which he orders the remains of Barlaan and Josaphat to be brought back to India and buried in the church that Josaphat has built. Since then, the believers considered Barlaan and Josaphat saints: Barachias, making no delay, set forth with a mighty host, and arrived at the cave, and beheld their sepulchre, and wept bitterly over it, and raised the gravestone. There he descried Barlaam and Ioasaph lying, as they had been in life. Their bodies had not lost their former hue, but were whole and uncorrupt, together with their garments. These, the consecrated tabernacles of two holy souls, that sent forth full sweet savour, and showed naught distressful, were placed by King Barachias in costly tombs and conveyed by him into his own country. ’’ 3. Urbana at Felisa Urbana at Feliza i Modesto de Castro Ang Pagdalao Feliza: Isa sa mga gauang tapat na ipinag-uutos nang paquiquipagcapua tauo, ay ang pagdalao sa camaganak, caibigan o caquilala cun capanahonan, cun dinalao nang masamang capalaran o namamatayan caya, ay carapatang dalauin at maquiramay sa catouaan, o aliuin caya sa hirap. Ituro mo Feliza cay Honesto, cun papaano at cailan gagauin ang pagdalao. Ang una una,I, gauin sa capanahonan at pag di natama sa oras ay naiinip ang dinadalao, at magdadalang hiya ang dumadalao. Sa oras na may guinagaua, laloy cun nagagahol sa panahon cun cumacain, humahapon o nag darasal ay din uucol gauin, maliban na lamang cun magcadatihan ang nag dadaluan. Caya dapat ipagtanong ang caugalian (nang bayan at sa lahat ng caquilala) at nang houag madalao sa panahon na di ucol. Cun nacasara ang pintoan nang daan, ay tugtuguing banayad at houag dalas-dalas. Cung pumapanic sa hagdan, ay patatao, at cun may casamang tao na ucol igalang ay ilalagay sa maguinhawang panican. Cun may casamang matanda at di macacaya ay tulungan pumanic at alalahanin ang panahonh haharapin. Cun may casamang mahal na babae ay ilagay sa canan o sa lugar cayang ucol sa canyang calagayan.
Cun pumapanic na sa hagdanan ay magdarahan nang pagtungtong sa baitang at huwag magingay at cun may masalubong na matanda o guinoo ay tumigil at paraanin sa canan o sa mabuting daanan. Cun pag capanic sa hagdan ay huwag caracara i tututloy magpasabi sa alila cun mayroon, at cun wala ay tumugtog nang maramihan sa pinto at nang mamalayang may tao. Excerpt. 4. Ang Mga Dalit Kay Maria Ang Angelus Binati ng anghel ng Diyos si Santa Maria At naglihi siya lalang ng Espiritu Santo Narito ang alipin ng Panginoon Ganapin sa akin ayon sa wika mo At ang Berbo ay nagkatawang tao At nakipamayan sa atin
Ipanalangin mo kami, Santang Ina ng Diyos Nang kami’y maging dapat na magkamit ng mga pangako ni Hesukristo Panalangin Kasihan Mo ang aming kaluluwa ng Iyong mahal na grasya, hiniling namin sa Iyo, O Panginoon, upang kaming nangakakilala ng pagkakatawang tao ni Jesucristong Anak Mo sa pamamalita ng Anghel ay ihatid naman sa kaluwalhatian ng pagkabuhay na mag-uli alang-alang sa Kaniyang pagpapakasakit at pagkamatay sa Krus, sa pamamagitan ni Cristong Panginoon namin. Siya Nawa. C. Literary Compositions 1. Arte y Reglas de la Lengua Tagala (Art and rules of the Tagalog language). Written by Fr.
Blancas de San Jose and translated to Tagalog by Tomas Pinpin in 1610. 2. Compendio de la Lengua Tagala (Understanding the Tagalog language). Written by Fr. Gaspar de San Agustin in 1703. 3. Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala (Tagalog vocabulary). The first Tagalog dictionary written by Fr. Pedro de San Buenaventura in 1613. 4. Vocabulario de la Lengua Pampanga (Pampanga vocabulary). The first book in Pampanga written by Fr. Diego in 1732. 5. Vocabulario de la Lengua Bisaya (Bisayan vocabulary). The best language book in Visayan by Mateo Sanchez in 1711. 6. Arte de la Lengua Ilokana (The Art of the Ilocano language).
The first Ilocano grammar book by Francisco Lopez. 7. Arte de la Lengua Bicolana (The Art of the Bicol language). The first book in the Bicol language and written by Fr. Marcos Lisbon in 1754. D. FOLK SONGS. Folk songs became widespread in the Philippines. Each region had its national song from the lowlands to the mountains of Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. Folk songs truly manifest the artistic feelings of the Filipinos. They show the Filipinos’ innate appreciation for and love of beauty. The examples are Leron-Leron Sinta, Pamulinawen, Dandansoy, Sarong Banggi and Atin Cu Pung Singsing. . Leron-Leron Sinta Leron, leron sinta, buko ng papaya Dala-dala’y buslo, sisidlan ng bunga Pagdating sa dulo’y nabali ang sanga Kapus kapalaran, humanap ng iba. Gumising ka Neneng, tayo’y manampalok Dalhin mo ang buslo’t sisidlan ng hinog Pagdating sa dulo’y lalambalambayog Kumapit ka Neneng, baka ka mahulog. Ako’y ibigin mo, lalaking matapang Ang baril ko’y pito, ang sundang ko’y siyam Ang lalakarin ko’y parte ng dinulang Isang pinggang pansit ang aking kalaban. 2. Pamulinawen -(In English: Stone hearted lady), is among the popular songs of the Ilocano People. Pamulinawen usoc indengam man Toy umasasug agrayo ita sadiam Panunotem man Di ca pagintutulngan Toy agayat Agrayo ‘ta sadiam. Issem ta diac malipatan Ta nasudi unay nga nagan Uray sadin tayan lugar sadino man Pusoc dina liclican Tanda niayat nga silalasbang No malagip ca pusoc ti mabangaran. Panunotem man Di ca pagintutulngan Toy agayat Agrayo ‘ta sa diam Issem ta diac malipatan Ta nasudi unay nga nagan Uray sadin tayan lugar sadino man Pusoc dina liclican tanda niayat nga silalasbang No malagip ca pusoc ti mabangaran. Adu nga bitbittuen adu nga rosrosas Ti addat disug Agrayo ita sadiam Panunotemman i cas kenca nga limtuad Sabong ni ayat sica’t pagpasagac. Issem ta diac malipatan Ta nasudi unay nga nagan Uray sadin tayan Lugar sadino man Pusoc dina liclican Tanda niayat nga silalasbang No malagip ca Pusoc ti mabanga ra 3. Dandansoy -is courtship dance from Negros Occidental. In its song, it depicts a story of a woman who goes home to Payao and tells her sweetheart to follow her in case he misses her. Dandansoy, bayaan ta icao Pauli aco sa Payao Ugaling con icao hidlauon Ang Payao imo lang lantauon. Dandansoy, con imo apason Bisan tubig di magbalon Ugaling con icao uhauon
Sa dalan magbobonbobon. Convento, diin ang cura? Municipio, diin justicia? Yari si dansoy maqueja. Maqueja sa paghigugma Ang panyo mo cag panyo co Dala diri cay tambijon co Ugaling con magcasilo Bana ta icao,asawa mo aco. 4. Atin Cu Pung Singsing Atin cu pung singsing, Metung yang timpucan; Amana que iti queng indung ibatan; Sangcan queng sininup keng metung a caban, Mewala ya iti, Ecu camalayan. Ing sucal ning lub cu, Susucdul quing banua, Picurus cung gamat Babo ning lamesa; Nino mang manaquit Queng singsing cung mana Calulung puso cu Manginuya que a . E. RECEREATIONAL PLAYS.
There are many recreational plays performed by Filipinos during the Spanish times. Almost all of them were in poetic form. Here are examples: 1. Tibag – the word tibag means to excavate. This ritual was brought here by the Spaniard to remind the people about the search of St. Helena for the Cross on which Jesus died. 2. Lagaylay – this is a special occasion for the Pilarenos of Sorsogon during May time to get together. As early as April, the participating ladies are chosen and sometimes, mothers volunteer their girls in order to fulfill a vow made during an illness or for a favor received.
In some parts of Bicol, a different presentation is made but the objective is the same – praise, respect and offering of love to the Blessed Cross by St. Helen on the mound she had dug in. 3. The Cenaculo – this is a dramatic performance to commemorate the passion and death of Jesus Christ. There are two kinds: the Cantada and Hablada. In the Hablada the lines are spoken in a more deliberate manner showing the rhythmic measure of each verse and the rhyming in each stanza and is more dignified in theme; the Cantada is chanted like the Pasion.
The Cenaculo is written in octosyllabic verse, with 8 verses to the stanza. The full length versions take about 3 nights of staging. Performers come in costumes with wigs and performers are carefully chosen for their virtuous life. One performs the role of Jesus Christ and another the role of the Virgin Mary. Many famous Cenaculo players come from the Tagalog regions although there are also those from Ilocos, Pampanga, Bicol and both Sibulanon and Hiligaynon. 4. Panunuluyan –this is presented before 12:00 on Christmas Eve. This is a presentation of the search of the Virgin Mary and St.
Joseph for an inn wherein to deliver the baby Jesus. 5. The Salubong (or Panubong) -The Salubong is an Easter play that dramatizes the meeting of the Risen Christ and his Mother. It is still presented in many Philippine towns. 6. Carillo (Shadow Play) – this is a form of dramatic entertainment performed on a moonless night during a town fiesta or on dark nights after a harvest. This shadow play is made by projecting cardboard figures before a lamp against a white sheet. The figures are moved like marionettes whose dialogues are produced by some experts.
The dialogues are drawn from a Corrido or Awit or some religious play interspersed with songs. These are called by various names in different places: Carillo in Manila, Rizal and Batangas and Laguan; TITRES in Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Bataa, Capiz and Negros; TITIRI in Zambales; GAGALO or KIKIMUT in Pampanga and Tarlac; and ALIALA in La Union 7. The Zarzuela – considered the father of the drama; it is a musical comedy or melodrama three acts which dealt with man’s passions and emotions like love, hate, revenge, cruelty, avarice or some social or political problem. 8.
The Sainete – this was a short musical comedy popular during the 18th century. They were exaggerated comedies shown between acts of long plays and were mostly performed by characters from the lower classes. Themes were taken from everyday life scenarios. F. THE MORO-MORO. Like the Cenaculo, the Moro-moro is presented also on a special stage. This is performed during town fiestas to entertain the people and to remind them of their Christian religion. The plot is usually the same that of a Christian princess or a nobleman’s daughter who is captured by the Mohammedans.
The father organizes a rescue party where fighting between the Moros and the Christians ensue. A leader starts off with an extemporaneous poem announcing the purpose. He then spins a “lumbo” o “tabo” marked with a white line. Whoever comes in the direction of the white line when the spinning stops gets his turn to “go into the sea to look for the ring. ” This means a girl will ask him a riddle and if he is able to answer, he will offer the ring to the girl. The comedia is one of the earliest forms of stage drama in the Philippines.
In Spain, where it originated, comedia is designated any full-length play, whether it was light farce or serious drama. As it developed in the Philippines, however, it took on a particular aspects that of a spectacular play which had for its main theme courtly love, usually between a prince and princess of different religions, one a christian, the other is Muslim. The “Moro-Christian” conflict is resolved in the end, with the victory of the Christians, thus making it a semi-religious play, a propaganda tool which was endorsed by friars. The first comedias staged in the Philippines dramatized the lives of saints.
As early as 1597, some dramatic performances were reportedly held during the festivals celebrating the arrival of the relics of some 120 saints for distribution among the different newly built parishes in the islands. Theatrical performances also highlighted such occasions as the installation in 1598 of Fr. Pedro de Agurto as the new Bishop of Cebu and the inauguration of the San Jose College in Manila in 1601. Then in 1619, such plays as Cmedia de la venta de Josef, Comedia de la Concepcion, and Comedia del Prinsipe de Transilvania were staged to celebrate Pope Urban VIII’s authorization of the cult of the Immaculate Conception.
Perhaps the earliest play dealing with Moro-Christian conflict is Gran Comedia de la toma del pueblo de Corralat y conquista del cerro, written by Fr. Hieronimo Perez to celebrate Governor-General Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera’s successful campaign against the Moros in Mindanao in 1637. The plays of this kind were later called moro-moro. Majority of the comedias have the same plots as the awit and corridos. It has not been ascertained whether they were based on this popular romances or the genres originated from common source but developed independently of each other.
But while the materail was drawn from foreign sources in the hands of local playwrights and directors, it has been enriched by the incorporation of indigenous elements. An important ingredient of the comedia for example is the Batalla. It is a stylized battle using the movements of the arnis de mano, performed to the tune of martial music. A typical comedia is of some length, requiring several night for its presentation. Divided into journadas, each journadalasts from early evening to the wee hours of the morning, the audiences interest kept alive by the movements of the colorfully costumed performers and the choreographed batallas.
The presentation is usually done on open-air makeshift stages built on vacant lots or at the center of the town plaza. A prompter is usually on hand throughout the performance as it is impossible for the characters to remember their lengthy parts. Comedia or moro-moro scripts are written in the dialects of the regions where they have been produced. They have been mostly copied in long hand from the “originals” kept by the playwrights themselves. For this reason, they have had limited circulation.
Some of the comedias produced in the islands are: Auredato at Atrone, Bayaceto y Dorlisca, Bernardo Carpio, Claudia y Segismundo, Carmelita, Comedia famosa de Doce Pares de Francia. Dona Ines Cuello de Garza y Principe Nicanor, Don Juan Tinoso, Don Gonzalo de Cordoba, Don Rodrigo Vivar, Pantinople y Adriana, Principe Villarba, Orantis Orantias, Siete Infantes de Lara, and Principe Baldovino. Counted among the well-known comedia playwrights are Jose de la Cruz (“Huseng Sisiw”) and his famous pupil, Francisco Baltazar. Moro-moro is a pure blood and thunder drama frequently depicts imaginary conflicts between the two peoples. 6th century – in Cavite one incident which has direct bearing on the writing of the moro-moro . July 15,1637 – the last played presented in the church of Manila 1637 to 1750 – no evidence of new existence of new plays 17th century – triumphal welcome accorded to Don Sebastian de corcuera, the subjugator of Cachil Corralat 1750 – a great war dance was given in paniqui, then a town in Pangasinan 1790 – three show houses were known to have established in Manila (Teatro Comico, Tondo Theatre, primitivo Theartre) 1886 – Capitan Serapo write Einamay, Sayaw, and Huas 889 – Carmila 1890 – Felipo Produced by Eriberto Gumban 1892 – Clodovee 19th century – the plots of the awits, corridos, and the lives of saint served 20th century – all things insubstantial and ephemeral in value began to disappear from the scene. H. DUPLO. The Duplo replace the Karagatan. This is a poetic joust in speaking and reasoning. The roles are taken from the Bible and from proverbs and saying. It is usually played during wakes for the dead. -is a technique that inserted or integrated into the celebrations to reduce grief in prayer for the dead.
It consists of puns, jokes and puzzles in vernacular. I. THE BALAGTASAN. This is a poetic joust or a contest of skills in debate on a particular topic or issue. This replaced the DUPLO and is held to honor Francisco “Balagtas” Baltazar. The balagtasan is a debate in poetic verse. It was created during the American Colonization of the Philippines, inspired by old forms of Philippine verse debate like the karagatan, Juego de Prenda and the duplo. Its name comes from the original surname of Francisco Baltazar, Balagtas, having been created to honor his birth anniversary.
History The first balagtasan was held on April 6, 1924. Three sets of poets participated using scripted defenses. The debate between Jose Corazon de Jesus and Florentino Collantes was particularly impressive and the organizers decided to set up another balagtasan for the two distinguished poets, this time requiring improvised defenses. This was held on October 18, 1925, at the Olympic Stadium in Manila. De Jesus won the title of the first Hari ng Balagtasan (King of Balagtasan). Since then, balagtasan became a popular pastime until after World War II.
Poets in other languages of the Philippines created their own versions like the Ilocano bukanegan (named after Ilocano poet Pedro Bukaneg) and the Pampango crisotan (named after Pampango poet-dramatist Juan Crisostomo Soto). Francisco Balagtas Early life Francisco Baltazar was born on April 2, 1788 to Juana de la Cruz and Juan Baltazar in Barrio Panginay, Bigaa, Bulacan. He studied in a parochial school in Bigaa. During his childhood years, he wrote poems like “Mahal ko ang Bayan ko”. Francisco later worked as houseboy for the Trinidad family in Tondo, Manila.
The master of the house let him to study Technology, Philosophy, Humanities, and Canon law at the Colegio de San Jose where two of his former teachers were Dr. Mariano Pilapil and Jose de la Cruz. Awards and Titles Francisco entitled as the “Ama ng Balagtasan” A Balagtasan is a debate in a form of a poem, the notable characters on it is the Tagapagsalaysay (narrator), The Lakandiwa and the Lakambini, (Gentlemen and Lady) Other than that, francisco Balagtas won an award during his schooldays, graduated as valedictorian in Madrid. Francisco Balagtas also were recognized by the pahayagang Kastilyano and became the front cover for 2 weeks.
Legacy An elementary school was erected in honor of Balagtas, the Francisco Balagtas Elementary School (FBES), located along Alvarez Street in Santa Cruz, Manila. There is also a plaza and park (Plaza Balagtas) erected in Pandacan, Manila while most of the streets were named after various Florante at Laura characters in honor of Francisco Balagtas. Example of Balagtasan PAKSA: Saan higit na natututo ng disiplina ang bata: sa tahanan o sa paaralan? MGA MAMBABALAGTAS: Panig ng TAHANAN > ELVIE V. ESPIRITU (Nueva Vizcaya)           Panig ng PAARALAN > GONIE T. MEJIA (Tarlac)           Papel ng LAKANDIWA > RAFAEL A.
PULMANO (Laguna) MULA SA PINAGSAMANG PANULAT NINA: Elvie V. Espiritu (Panig ng TAHANAN) Gonie T. Mejia (Panig ng PAARALAN) Rafael A. Pulmano (Papel ng LAKANDIWA) LAKANDIWA Unang Lunes na tipanan kami’y di man nakarating           Ngayon nama’y handa kaming magbayad ng tuwa’t aliw           Kayo na po ang bahalang sa ami’y magpaumanhin           Huli man daw at magaling ay maihahabol pa rin. Sa di pa nakababatid, si Ralph Pulmano po ini           Sa balanang nakikinig, malugod na bumabati           Maganda po itong paksang tatadtarin ngayong gabi           Sa sangkalan ng katwiran ng makatang pogi’t seksi
Kay Ginoong Max Santiago, salamat po nang marami           Sa padala ninyong paksang ganito ang sinasabi:           Sa tahanan o eskwela, saan nga ba mag-aani           Ng higit na disiplina iyang batang lumalaki? Alam ko pong kayo’y merong inyo-inyong kurukuro           Ngunit upang itong paksa’y lalo nating mapaghulo           Salubungin na po natin ng palakpak na magulo           Ang dalawang magsasabong sa gitna ng entablado! TAHANAN Sa bayan po ng Santa Fe, probinsiyang Nueva Viscaya           Lahat ng makahidwa ko, sa rima ay puro tumba           Hindi ako nagyayabang sa atuos kong makata           Umatras na kung kaylangan hangga’t mayrong panahon pa. Sa tahanan nag-uugat ang dakilang pagmamahal           Disiplina’y nahihigit na dito’y natututunan           Maliwanag ang panig kong sa paksa’y ipaglalaban           Elvie Espiritu po sa lahat ay nagpupugay. PAARALAN Kung ang laban po ay wrestling, ako’y dapat nang umatras           Ngunit ito’y paligsahan ng may talino at utak           Tinatanggap ko ang hamon sa panig na ilalahad           Ang higit na disiplina sa paaralan nagbubuhat.
Tubong Concepcion, Tarlac po akong hamak na lingkod n’yo           Nagpupugay sa balana nang taos sa aking puso           Sa banta ng paraluman ako anya’y igugupo           Sagot ko’y subukan pamu ban kanita din mabalu. LAKANDIWA Subukan pamu ewan ko, ya’y di ko naintindihan           Kahit wala si Babalu, tuloy pa rin itong laban           Para kayo’y di mainip, atin na pong umpisahan           Si Elvie ang unang tindig, muli’y ating palakpakan. TAHANAN
Sinasabing ang tahanan ay ang pugad ng pamilya           At sa pugad nagmumula ang sagradong pagsasama           Pagsasamang naaangkop sa gampaning itinakda           Itinakda ng Maykapal sa dalawang mag-asawa. Gantimpala sa matimyas na pag-ibig ay ang anak           Anak na siyang tungkuling imulat sa tamang landas           Landas ay ang tamang asal, sandata sa isang bukas           Bukas na tanging magulang sa anak ay hinahangad. Unang gurong kagigisnan ng anak ay ang magulang           Magulang na walang sawang sa kanya ay aantabay           Aantabay sa lahat ng kabubuti sa buhay Nitong anak na nagmula sa dugo nila at laman. Sa matuwid na salita sa tahana’y nahihigit           Disiplina’y nakukuha ng anak ay nakakamit           Pagkat nandiyan sa tahanan ang higit na malasakit           Malasakit ng magulang sa anak ay magtutuwid. Tsaka ngayon ay may tutol gaya nitong kahidwaan           Para bagang hindi siya sa kamusmusan nagdaan           Hindi ba ang disiplina sa anak ay halos alam           Bago pa ito pumasok sa alin mang paaralan?
LAKANDIWA Yan si Elvie Espiritu, ang Reyna ng Balagtasan           Ngayon naman ay ang Hari ang s’ya nating pakikinggan           Di lang Hari sa pagbikas, Hari din ng kapogihan           Kaya lang po, Haring sunog — si Gonie po’y palakpakan! PAARALAN Ang karunungan ay lunas sa sakit na kamangmangan           Ang talino ay hagdanan sa tugatog ng tagumpay           Disiplina ay sandata sa tatahakin mong buhay           Paarala’y institusyon sa ganiyang kaalaman.
Sa tahanan ay di sapat ang dapat na matutunan           Ng anak na hinuhutok sa disiplinang kailangan           Lalo’t magulang ng bata kapwa mayrong hanapbuhay           Ang panahon ng pag-ugit sa anak ay sadyang kulang. Sa tahana’y mawiwikang una yaong kaalaman           Pagkat dito’y ama’t ina sa anak ang nangangaral           Halaga ng pagtuturo ng guro sa paaralan Ay ginto rin pagkat ito ay propesyong sinumpaan. Kung ang ina nitong bata’y tsismosa at bungangera           At alimbawang ang ama ay batugan at pabaya           Sa tahanan bang nabanggit, anong uring disiplina           Ng anak ay mapupulot, ng anak ay nakukuha. Nagtatanong lang po ako, hindi ako nang-aasar           Iyan nama’y nagaganap sa iba pong pamamahay           Di gaya sa paaralan, guro’y mahirap magkulang           Pagka’t iya’y katungkulan na kanilang gagampanan. LAKANDIWA Kung baga po sa sinaing ay malapit nang kumulo           Sa apoy ng pagtatalo itong paksang niluluto           Ako muna ay tatabi upang ako’y di mapaso           At mamaya magbabalik kapag handa nang maghango.
TAHANAN Tila ko ba napapansing kahidwa ko’y isang bulag           Bulag pagkat nalilihis sa tunay na nagaganap           Mali na isang bahagdan ng magulang ay nasulyap           Siyam na pu’t siyam na mabuti, itatangging agad-agad. Mas maluwag ang panahon ng anak ay ilalagi           Sa tahanan na kapiling ang sa kanya’y nagtatangi           Matuwid na bunga nito’y doon higit nangyayari           Ang aktwal na halimbawa sa disiplinang nasabi.
Ang silid ng paaralan ay silid ng karunungan           At sa compound ng eskwela, pag-aaral, lipaw-lipaw           Ang impluwensiya sa ibang kamag-aral ay di alam           Di lahat ay nakikita ng guro ay matugaygay. Hindi na dapat pagtakhan pagkat ito’y nagaganap           Anak ay nababarkada sa kaeskwelang di tapat           Hindi tapat sa dahilang sa kanya ay magsasadlak           Sa ugaling di mainam, sa kabutiha’y baligtad. PAARALAN Sarili ko’y pinipilit sa dilag ay maniwala           Ngunit loob ko y tutol, tinauran n’ya’y hindi tama           Pag sinabing mag-aaral, may takot nang bumabadha           Na labagin ang tuntuning umiiral sa eskwela. Sabihin na nating higit ang panahon sa tahanan           Na ilalagi ng anak kaysa doon sa paaralan           Diyan ka magtataka at sadya pang hahangaan           Ang disiplina ay higit sa eskwela nalalaman. Banggitin din na malimit sa kapintasan ng bata           Na siya’y mana sa ama, dili kaya ay sa ina           Ibig ko ditong tukuyin, ang anak ay mapanggaya           Magulang kung matapobre, anak nila ay kaisa.
Unawain lang po ako, ito’y hindi pandudusta           Kapag galit ang magulang, sa anak ay nawiwika           Na kesyo ikaw ay ganyan, di nag-aral palibhasa           Sa ibig ko pong tukuyin ay kayo na ang magkusa. TAHANAN Ang diwa ng pagtatalo wari ko ba’y nilalabo           Ng kahidwang kutis-sanggol, yaong sanggol na ewan ko           Sa sarili niyang tahanan, hindi ba niya napipiho           Kung anong uring paghutok sa anak ang inaako.
Mas maigi pa sa anak kung aktwal na makikita           Yaong mga halimbawa sa magandang disiplina           Sa tahanan ang magulang, sila’y mga halimbawa           Doon naman sa paaralan, iyan ba ay magagawa? Katulad ng pagsisilbi, paggalang, pagpipitagan           Sa magulang at kapatid at sa kapwa mo nilalang           Pagkilos at pangungusap, kaayusan ng katawan           Kalinisan ng ugali, pagpupuri sa Maykapal. PAARALAN Pakiusap sa kahidwang amasona ng Vizcaya           Wala sanang personalan, magbitiw man ng kataga           Bakit yaong kutis-sanggol wari ba niyang dinudusta?
Ako nama’y di sinabing mistula siyang boksingera. Nalimot na din po yata ng makatang kasalungat           Na sa eskwela’y may subject na good manners and right conduct           Paaralan ay tahanan ang siyang nakakatulad           Guro ang mga magulang, estudyante’y mga anak. Kaibahang nahihigit na doon sa paaralan Mga guro’y walang pagod ilingkod ang kakayahan           Hindi paris sa tahanan, ang magulang magkaminsan           Nawawalan ng panahong ang anak ay paglingkuran. TAHANAN
Pati pala ang matuwid ng kalaban ay ulikba           Dahil kaya siya’y bagabag ng maling paniniwala           Magulang ang hinahangad ang anak ay mapagpala           Dugo’y higit na matimbang, iyan ba’y maitatatwa? Halaga ng disiplinang nababatid sa tahanan           Ay hindi lamang magkano, hindi kayang matawaran           Pagkat dito’y obligasyon ang sabi mong katungkulan           At iyan namang katungkulan laan doon sa suwelduhan. PAARALAN Ang dilag ba’y nagtataka o siya ay nagtatanong?
Akin na ding lilinawin nang hindi siya nagmamaktol           Mga guro ay suwelduhan sa serbisyo ang katugon           Pagkat sila’y gumagaganap sa tinapos na propesyon. Ako, ikaw, kahit sila, na may anak na iniwan,           Ang obligasyong mangaral sa anak di maibigay           Dahil tayo’y nasa dayo, di kapiling sa tahanan           Sa ‘ting mga pagkukulang, nagpupuno’y paaralan. TAHANAN Kahit isa ang dumayo sa dalawang mag-asawa           Mayron pa ring magsisilbi sa tahana’y magpapala           Kakayahan ng iniwang kapilas ba’y bale wala           Upang anak ay hutukin sa nasabing disiplina?
PAARALAN Di ko naman sinasabing sila’y walang kakayahan           Tinuran ko’y halimbawa na tayo ay kakulangan           May layunin kaya itong kahidwa kong paraluman           Na kami ay pag-awayin ng reyna ko sa tahanan? TAHANAN Takusa man ang kalaban, wala akong pakialam           Mahalaga’y ang panig ko’y sa kanya’y nakakalamang. PAARALAN Sa boksing pag nang-aasar, kalaba’y mahina na           Gayon din sa balagtasan, wala din pong pinag-iba. TAHANAN Di masama ang mangarap kahit walang pagkatupad. PAARALAN
Di na dapat pangarapin ang bagay na natitiyak. TAHANAN Bulastog na paniwala! PAARALAN Ayon lang yan sa akala! LAKANDIWA Akala ko’y biru-biro ang labanan ng dalawa           Kung nahuli pala ako’y baka merong nadisgrasya           Magkamayan muna kayo’t ang hinaho’y ibalik na           Kababayang minamahal, palakpakan natin sila! Si Elvie po ang may sabing sa bahay mas nakakamit           Ng bata ang disiplina, pagkat dahil sa pag-ibig,           Ang magulang sa anak n’ya ay lubos ang malasakit,           Laging handang umantabay at masuyong nagtutuwid.
Ani Gonie, disiplina’y bahagi ng kaalaman           Na higit na nakukuha ng bata sa esk’welahan           Lalo anya kapag ama’t ina’y kapwa nagkukulang           Guro ang s’yang gumaganap sa tungkulin ng magulang. Sang-ayon sa isang k’wento, sa langit ay nakapila           Duktor, narses, inhinyero, arkitekto, at iba pa           Sila noong nasa lupa ay mayroong disiplina           Kaya sa kabilang buhay, nakamtan ang gantimpala. Bawa’t isa sa kanila ay mayroong sumalubong           Buong tuwang nagsasabi kay San Pedro, “Anak ko ‘yon!           Ngunit isa ang lumapit at sa kanya ay nagbulong,           “Lahat sila nu’ng musmos pa, ako’ng guro nila noon! ” Disiplina’y sa tahanan unang dapat matutuhan           Disiplina’y sa esk’wela dapat bigyang-katatagan           Paaralan at tahanan ay pandayan nitong asal           Nagtutulong na ihanda ang bata sa wastong buhay. Iyang murang kaisipan ng bata ay nahuhutok           Nang ayon sa nakikita’t naririnig sa palibot           Sa tahanan at esk’wela’y may mabuting napupulot,           Masasamang impluwens’ya ay doon din sumusulpot.
Sa magulang po at guro, ito’y isang paalala           Upang bata ay matuto ng tunay na disiplina           Tayo mismong nangangaral ang dapat na magpakita           Ng kanilang gagayahing mabubuting halimbawa. Sa panig na pinagtanggol ng dalawang makata po           Patas sila ng kat’wiran, parehas po na may punto           Kaya naman ang hatol ko, sila’y tabla, kaya kayo,           Palakpakan sanang muli si Elvira at Gorgonio! J. THE DUNG-AW. This is a chant in free verse by a bereaved person or his representative beside the corpse of the dead. No definite meter or rhyming scheme is used.
The person chanting it freely recites in poetic rhythm according to his feelings, emotions and thoughts. It is personalized and usually deals with the life, sufferings and sacrifices of the dead and includes apologies for his misdeeds. The Art of Dung-aw Ilocanos have a collection of dirges or dung-aw, chanted or wailed in funeral wakes lamenting the passing of the dead. To tourists or non-ilokanos hearing dung-aw, it sounds like a phrase that is more sang than spoken. It usually peaks to a crescendo of discordant shouting then tapers of to melodic whimpering.
The Tradition of Dung-aw What others don’t know is that dung-aw is the ultimate ilocano show of emotion. Ilocanos are very stoic people. They take each blow that life brings stone-faced and unfazed. Be it poverty, sudden crashes of fortune or simply the hardship of daily labouring; Ilocanos are the goats that take in everything, saving what they can and moving forward steadily without much complaint. Dung-aw is the song of the soul that ilocanos sing to ease the pain of losing a loved one. It is the release of the pent-up flood of indignation and suffering.
A cry from a heart that can no longer keep its peace. In a wake, when one person starts chanting dung-aw, a lot more people follow, so that the whole chorus sounds like one synchronized voice punctuated by an occasional scream. Not just women, but also men, sing this song of grief. The song usually ends with every singer humming or whispering a personal sonata, heartbreaking and tear-filled. But more often than not, people know that dung-aw is over when the one chanting it collapses in exhaustion. K. THE AWIT and the CORRIDO. Similarities and Differences:
The terms ‘awit’ and ‘corrido’ are both related to music. ‘Awit’ is the Tagalog word for song while the Spanish word ‘corrido’ means “a metrical story, usually sung to the accompaniment of a guitar, in fandango style. Pardo de Tavera -an imminent Filipino scholar, believes that the word ‘corrido’ was derived from the Spanish ‘occurido,’ meaning “events” or “happenings”. Korido is the generic name for Philippine romances. In Tagalog literature, an awit is distinguished from the korido basically by the number of syllables in each line.
The korido refers to metrical romances in octosyllabic (8 syllables) verse called ‘hakira’ while the awit is in dodecasyllabic (12 syllables) verse called ‘plosa. ‘ Further distinctions mentioned by Dr. Eugenio from some literary historians and critics are in terms of subject matter, style, and movement. Epifanio de los Santos refers to the awit as “chivalric-heroic” poems while corridos are “legendary and religious poems. ” Gabriel Bernardo on the other hand finds the distinction more in the music to which the romances are often set and in the amount of time the reader takes in singing or reciting it. The awit is set to music in andante or slow time; the corrido, in allegro or hurried time. ” Further, Bernardo believes that “the awit is read mainly for the quality of its thoughts and for its beauty and sweetness of expression; the corrido, mainly for the plot of the story it tells. ” The Panganibans (Jose Villa Panganiban and Consuelo T. Panganiban) suggest a distinction in terms of the source of the story it tells; -the corrido is based on an existing tale or legend from European countries while; -the awit is a story fabricated from the imagination of the writer although the setting and characters are still European.
They are inclined to believe, however, that the two terms refer to one and the same type of narrative poetry, except that the name ‘awit’ was later given to it when it was chanted or sung and ‘corrido’ when it was merely narrated. Another mark that distinguishes an awit from a korido is in their titles. The awit begins with “Buhay na pinagdaanan ni” (life experienced by) or “Salita at buhay na pinagdaanan ni” (history and life experienced by) while korido always begins with the word ‘corrido,’ as in “Corrido at pinagdaanang buhay ni Principe Baldovino. But, as some Tagalog romances titled “corrido” have dodecasyllabic lines and are therefore awits, as noticed by Dr. Eugenio, differentiating based on their titles alone may not be enough to classify a romance as an awit or as a korido. Introduction in the Philippines: It is not known exactly when or how the metrical romances were introduced and took shape in the country. Vicente Barrantes assumes a Spanish origin and suggests that romances and popular tales of Spain, which were already altered when they reached the country and were in turn altered by the natives, may have been brought by the soldiers of Miguel Lopez de Legaspi from Mexico.
The corridos that took shape in the Philippines thus may have been influenced not just by Spanish and European sources but also by the Mexican corrido. The corridos, the narrative folk songs of Mexico, are direct descendant of the Spanish romances (ballad). They narrate legends, historical accounts and currents events. Other sources in written form may have followed later, Spanish lore and literature: ballad collection (such as Romancero General), Spanish chronicles and histories, fiction, drama, and poetry.
Oral transmission is considered the probable cause for the very imperfect way some stories have been preserved in Philippine romances. It is also not known when the Philippine romances were first printed. Dr. Eugenio thinks that they were probably printed in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth century, but she is fairly certain that romances were being written in the second half of the eighteenth century, as Jose de la Cruz, the first known important writer of metrical romances, is assumed to have written some of his works before the end of the eighteenth century.
She cites both Gaspar de San Agustin and Epifanio de los Santos attesting to the prevalence of metrical romances even before Huseng Sisiw, Francisco Baltazar, and Ananias Zorilla became known as poets. No very old copies were preserved. The oldest copy which Fansler reported he saw was dated 1815. L. Florante at Laura Florante at laura The setting was in the 19th century. Balagtas’ story was a poem of 12 stanzas. This Filipino classic is studied by highschool students in their sophomore year. It is a favorite material for dramatic plays as the story told of war and love.
Above all, ”Florante at Laura” is woven by Francisco “Balagtas” Baltazar with his secret agenda of instilling awareness among the Filipino natives of the treacherous administration by the Spaniards during the colonial times. Story Summary Florante is alone and weary, in a deep dark forest, tied to a tree waiting to be eaten by ravenous wild beast… Florante was the son of Duke Briseo of Albanya and Princess Floresca of Krotona. At a young age, Florante was sent to Atenas to pursue his studies. There he met Menandro and Adolfo.
Adolfo was naturally selfish and envious even when he was still young. He held a secret hate towards Florante. Menandro was Adolfo’s exact opposite. He is a kind, loyal, and a trustworthy friend to Florante. Of the three, Florante was the smartest, which was the reason why he was the professor’s favorite. Adolfo’s anger fumes even more. He secretly swore to plot revenge upon Florante. Once there was a dramatic play being help at the academy. Adolfo made true the part he played. He stabbed Florante for real, but failed to kill him because of Menandro’s speed and agility.
He saved Florante. And everyone hated Adolfo. He was advised by Antenor to return to Albanya. Meanwhile, Florante and his fellows stayed and continued studying in Antenas, until, Florante received a bad news from his father – his mother had died. Florante returned home to Albanya. Not very long, his father, the duke, introduced Florante to the king. And this is when Florante laid eyes on Laura, the beautiful daughter of King Linseo. Even it was only their eyes that met, the hearts of Florante and Laura had an instant and clear understanding.
They loved each other from then on. However Florante had to go to Krotona, where his grandfather ruled. Albanya’s King Linseo assigned Florante to come to the aid of the warring Krotona. With God’s help, Florante succeeded. He saved Krotona against the Moors. Unfortunately, when Florante returned to Albanya, he discovered that it was now the kingdom that was in peril. The moors had imprisoned his father, and even Adolfo. Nonetheless Florante saved them all and freed the prisoners once again. So King Linseo loved Florante even more. And Florante’s deeds became famous overseas.
Once when Florante and Menandro were in Italy, Florante received a letter from Albanya ordering him to entrust the troops to Menandro and return to the palace immediately. But Florante was arrested by Adolfo’s troops when he was just about to enter the city! It was then that Florante realized it was all an evil plot by Adolfo, including the death of Florante’s father, and the capturing of Laura to pressure her to be wedded to Adolfo. From his prison cell, Florante was taken to the dangerous forest. There he was bonded to a tree to be eaten by wild animals. Florante was weakened, until he lost his consciousness.
In the meantime on the the other side of the forest, was yet another man full of loneliness and agony. He found himself in the same weary forest because his treacherous father the King of Persia. He was even threatened to be beheaded so his love Flerida would be wedded to the king. During this man’s lament, he heard the others voice agonizing from beyond. He tracked where the voice was coming and he came to the sight of a man on the verge of being eaten by hungry lions. His agility and skills drove the two lions away and Florante was saved. This man, Aladin, freed Florante from his bondage.
When Florante regained full consciousness, he gave much thanks to the Moor. And so they exchanged their stories, stories of the things that had befallen them… And until… The two men also heard two voices from afar. The voices also seemed to be narrating, and they were from women. They were full of surprise when they found their beloveds Laura and Flerida! And the hearts of the four were full of thanks and joy. Laura disclosed how she found herself in the forest. It was all because of Adolfo, who wanted to teach her a lesson for refusing his proposed marriage.
Adolfo took Laura to the forest and attempted to rape her, but, an arrow flew from Flerida’s a bow and pierced the poor heart of Adolfo… It was just after this story that Menandro’s troops then appeared in the forest and found Adolfo’s body lifeless… All rejoiced in their reunion. They sang songs of success and praise… Florante married Laura, as well as Aladin married Flerida – When the king father of Aladin died, they returned to Persia to relish the throne. In the meantime in the kingdom of Albanya, all hailed Florante and Laura as majesties of the the land.
From then on all lived lives ful

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