Review of SourcesWebster 1989Brooks 1987Worsnop 1992Caroll 1982Wuethrich 1990Nichols 1990Alzheimer’s Disease With the discovery of Alzheimer’s disease less than a century old, not enough information is available to create a cure, or to make easy predictions as to who will get the disease and when. Alzheimer’s disease patients need to be institutionalized for proper care once the disease reaches a certain point in which the patient becomes a danger to themselves and others. Alzheimer’s disease is a “degenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by premature senile mental deterioration” (Webster 89). It is also described as a disease that destroys the very core of one’s being.
It causes memory loss, disorientation, and personality changes. The human brain needs certain chemicals to transmit and receive messages between neurons (brain cells). An Alzheimer brain lacks sufficient chemicals for normal communication amongst neurons eventually causing the neuron itself to deteriorate and die. This occurs only in the areas of the brain involved with memory, speech and personality. (Brooks 87)Although there are some known cases of Alzheimer’s disease found in persons as young as twenty, the majority of victims are past the sixth decade of life. It is estimated that between five and ten percent of all victims will get the disease in their mid-sixties.
Twenty percent will get it in their seventies and forty percent in their eighties (Brooks 87). Symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease were first diagnosed in 1906 by a German neuropathologist named Alois Alzheimer. It was not until the early 1970’s that the American public became aware that Alzheimer’s is a disorder, not a natural part of the aging process (Worsnop 92). The predominant symptoms are gradual increasing loss of memory.
There are sixteen functional stages and sub stages leading to the most severe dementia according to Dr. Barry Reisberg of the New York University of Medicine. The stages are in this particular order, ” (1) decreased ability to handle a complex job (2) decreased ability to handle such complex activities of a daily life as (3) managing finances (4) complex meal preparation and (5) complex marketing skills. Then comes (6) loss of ability to pick out clothing properly, (7) or to put on clothing properly, followed by (8) loss of ability to handle the mechanics of bathing properly.
Then (9) progressive difficulties with continence and (10) toileting occur, followed by (11) very limited speech ability and (12) inability to speak more than a single word. Next comes (13) loss of ambulatory capacity. Last to go, are such basic functions as the ability to (14) sit up, (15) to smile, and (16) to hold up one’s head” (Wo!rsnop 92). Each Alzheimer patient will be affected in different ways. The more neurons lost, the more one’s mental abilities erode. Many people are very frightened of Alzheimer’s Disease to the point of paranoia.
They make assumptions that a little forgetfulness means that someone has been afflicted by Alzheimer’s disease. There is only need for concern when the forgetfulness represents “unusual or uncharacteristic degrees of forgetting:” Possible danger signs of Alzheimer’s disease could be:An inability to perform familiar tasks Trouble organizing and sequencing familiar information such as knowing where something goes Changes in habitual behavior patternsGradual memory lossSudden dramatic lack of social inhibitionDiminution of reason and problem solving abilities and inability to adapt to simple changes (Caroll 82)No one really knows what causes this tragic disease, but there are a few theories. One such theory is one born with a predisposition toward the disease. A certain molecular version of a protein called apolopoprotein is said to have some relevance in the cause of Alzheimer’s. There are three different forms of apolopoproteins.
One such is called apolopoprotein-4 and is found in abundance in the brains of autopsied Alzheimer’s patients. A person is born with zero to two copies of this protein. The more copies one has, the higher the risk of getting the disease (Wuethrich 90). Another theory is that Alzheimer’s Disease is linked to aluminum. Surprisingly high levels of aluminum turn up in the brains of Alzheimer’s victims.
Dr. Barry Thomas led an Australian study showing aluminum in water was accumulated in the brains of rats. Aluminum, which is used to purify water, can be absorbed by the body. “As to whether it actually causes memory loss and brain damage there is no conclusive evidence, but we fear it might”, stated Thomas.
The associate professor at University of Toronto, Theo Kruck. Kruck said, “aluminum is a highly toxic substance in your brain” (Nichols 90). There are no known cures to Alzheimer’s Disease, but there is one treatment that has been approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration. It is a drug called Cognex which prevents destruction of one of the neurotransmitters in the brain.
This slows the loss of memory. The only down side to this treatment is it is only effective on twenty percent of Alzheimer’s patients and it does not reverse the effects of Alzheimer’s; it simply slows the deterioration. Once the symptoms are present not much can be done by anyone to reverse them. Vitamins C and E act as antioxidants.
These are being tested, they may be able to use vitamins to stop deterioration of neurons. Some suggest that people who take these have lower risk on getting Alzheimer’s disease. Since not much of anything can be done once Alzheimer’s symptoms appear, people wonder what can be done to prevent one’s self from becoming a victim. According to Alicia Brooks of People Magazine, “people with higher levels of education are less likely to show symptoms.
The theory is the more you learn, the more you stimulate the brain, creating more complex neurons. Therefore, when the brain cells begin to degenerate or are destroyed more active brain cells would be in reserve to call on. “Force yourself to use your brain,” she says. There is no actual diagnosis for Alzheimer’s Disease. The only way to find out if an individual actually has Alzheimer’s Disease is by brain biopsy.
What doctors usually do to find out if a patient has the disease is to rule out all other possibilities. The following diseases must be ruled out before one can be called an Alzheimer’s patient. Multi-infarct dementia (MID)Parkinson’s DiseaseHuntington’s DiseaseSpinocerrabellar degenerationAmyotrophic lateral sclerosisRare nerve diseases (Kuru, Picks, Wilson’s, Creutzfeld Jacob’s)As technology progresses in the U. S.
longevity is also on the rise. The percentage of American over eighty-five years old has doubled in the he past two years. An estimated four -million Americans are touched by this disease and one-hundred-thousand die form it annually. Home care and professional care are both very expensive and financial support is extremely limited but there are some programs devised to create partial relief. Two such programs are Medicare and Medicaid. When a skilled nurse is required to assist a patient at home Medicare will pick up the check for the first twenty days.
In addition it will pay a portion of the bill for the upcoming eighty days. What happens after the eighty days? Medicare, a federal-state organization is designed to provide care for the poor who have Alzheimer’s. This program will pay for half of the cost for a nursing home stay if the patient can prove that he is unable to work (Worsnop 92). What happens if one cannot afford to pay for half of the hospital bill? The vast majority of Alzheimer’s victims are cared for by loved ones at home. Sometimes these caregivers feel a sense of obligation to take care of the patient, but the biggest reason for keeping a patient at home is lack of funds to pay of professional care.
Alzheimer’s patients need twenty-four hour supervision and the only way to provide this is through a nursing home or hospital of some sort. Scientists express confidence that a major breakthrough will come within a few years. How can one depend on this? This is a question one might ask themselves. According to a Boston study, by the year 2050, this nation will have between 7.
5 million and 14. 3 million cases of Alzheimer’s disease (Worsnop 92). How will they be taken care of?Special institutions should be set up by government with the proper facilities and equipment to deal with people with Alzheimer’s Disease. This is a new disease to us, and unfortunately we do not know much about it. This disease is devastating to families and friends of victims, as well as the victims themselves.
The patients must be cared for twenty-four hours a day. The average American cannot afford to do so, or afford to have their particular loved one cared for. The people of the nation are in need of assistance. It is the only solution.
Works CitedWebster, Laurence P. Alzheimer’s Disease: Troubled Past Uncertain Future. New York: Macmillan, 1989. Brooks, Robert W. Alzheimer’s: The Epidemic of the Elderly. Columbia, Maryland: GP Courseware Inc.
, 1987. Worsnop, Bernard L. Alzheimer’s and the Future. New York: Plemum Press, 1983. Caroll, Gail Kay.
A Look at Alzheimer’s Disease. New York, New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1982. Wuethrich, Sheldon. Common Questions about Alzheimer’s Disease. San Francisco: Coward McCann Inc.
, 1990. Nichols, Henry. Alzheimer’s Disease. Chicago: Bookshelf Publishing, 1990.